The Early Stone Age in Africa is equivalent to what is called the Lower Paleolithic in Europe and Asia.
The oldest stone tools, known as the Oldowan toolkit, consist of at least: • Hammerstones that show battering on their surfaces • Stone cores that show a series of flake scars along one or more edges • Sharp stone flakes that were struck from the cores and offer useful cutting edges, along with lots of debris from the process of percussion flaking By about 1.76 million years ago, early humans began to strike really large flakes and then continue to shape them by striking smaller flakes from around the edges.
Seriation uses the assumption that once a tool was developed, its use would become more widespread.
Stratigraphy uses the assumption that higher layers or strata were laid down after lower layers.
He concludes that my reinterpretation is invalid because the timescale has been corroborated by up to three independent annual measuring methods that agree with volcanic acidity spikes and deep-sea cores: ‘The first 110,000 annual layers of snow in that ice core (GISP2) have been visually counted and corroborated by two to three different and independent methods as well as by correlation with volcanic eruptions and other datable events.’ However, contrary to what Seely believes, neither the annual layer counting methods nor the external correlation methods are independent, they are all tied to the same starting assumptions of deep time.
The 110,000 annual layers are based on the assumptions that the Greenland Ice Sheet has been in equilibrium for several million years and that ice ages oscillate between glacials and interglacials with a period of 100,000 years based on the astronomical theory of the ice age (the Milankovitch mechanism).
It only sequences the age of things or determines if something is older or younger than other things.
Some types of relative dating techniques include climate chronology, dendrochronology, ice core sampling, stratigraphy, and seriation.
On the other hand, uniformitarians start with an assumption of great age, generally stable conditions and Milankovitch orbital cycles to create ice ages.
Ice cores showed the age of a military plane buried in the artic as thousands of years old.
Similarly, dendrochronology measures the tree rings in trees and assumes they represent years.
As a result, uniformitarians are looking for very thin annual layers on the order of centimetres and even millimetres near the bottom of the ice sheet.
The resulting difference in age-interpretation is a result of the starting paradigm; the data is the same and does not speak for itself. Seely superficially analyzes the main methods of counting annual layers.